International Research Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay <p>International Research Journal of Ayurveda &amp; Yoga (IRJAY) is a monthly (12 issues per year ) online peer reviewed international Journal. It is an open access online journal. This journal provide platform for PG scholars teachers and researchers to publish their good &amp; quality work in the field of Ayurveda and Yoga.IRJAY is developed for the researchers, scholars, scientists, post-docs and students who are seeking a platform for publishing their research work. This is the journal advised and developed by eminent and internationally renowned Ayurvedic professors, scientists and scholars. The journal aimed to publish high quality review articles, authentic research work,clinical trials and new innovative ideas.</p> <p>IRJAY confirms its adherence with guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (<a href="http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf">http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf</a>) from ICMJE and Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by COPE, DOAJ, WAME, and OASPA; (<a href="http://doaj.org/bestpractice">http://doaj.org/bestpractice</a>).</p> en-US editor.irjay@Gmail.Com (International Research Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga (IRJAY)) support@ubitechsolutions.com (Ubitech Solutions Pvt Ltd.) Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Ayurvedic Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis. - A Case Study https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Deep-Vein-Thrombosis-A-Case-Study <p>The Formation of a Blood Clot [thromb] in the Deep Veins is known as Deep Vein Thrombosis. After ischemic heart disease [IHD] and stroke, deep vein thrombosis is the third most frequent vascular illness, and it is a silent killer. Deep Vein Thrombosis affects about 0.1 percent of the population each year, pain, swelling, redness, warmth and other symptoms are typical. Various western medicine therapy modalities and medications, such as surgical interventions, tissue plasminogen activators, and anti-coagulants for time to break blood clots, all have their own limitations and adverse effects, in addition to being extremely costly nowadays. According to Ayurveda, the aetiology, indications, and symptoms of DVT are identical to those of Raktavrita vata, siragata vata, Gambhira vatarakta, and so on. Acharya Charaka, Sushruta, and Vagbhata all talked on how to treat these ailments. Because they are all Rakta Pradoshja vikara, they just discussed Raktamokshana therapy. However, in the current case study, external application of Ayurvedic lepa combined with bheshaja chikitsa i.e. Raktashodhaka / Raktaprasadhana medicines showed promising results, especially in reducing swelling, redness, itching, and pain without causing any side effects. According to Ayurveda, the present case of DVT with stroke was diagnosed as Ekanga shotha/ Raktavrita vata and pakshaghata. Various Ayurvedic panchakarma methods and internal medications have shown promising outcomes, particularly in minimising edoema [of the left limb caused by DVT] and thrombosis [in the proximal superficial femoral vein and common femoral vein] in deep veins is less severe.</p> Monika Rathore, Gyan Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Kumar Sharma, Renu Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Deep-Vein-Thrombosis-A-Case-Study Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Single Case Study on the Role of Some Ayurvedic Medicine in the Management of Pittaja Visarpa w.s.r to Herpes Zoster https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Single-Case-Study-on-the-Role-of-Some-Ayurvedic-Medicine-in-th <p>The name Herpes Zoster is derived from Herpein, meaning to creep; zoster, meaning gridle. While varicella is typically a disease of childhood, herpes zoster is an infectious disease,. It is the reactivation of chicken pox virus. It is commonly an episode of unilateral maculopapular painful rash and it appears recurrently in human due to suppressed immunity of an individual and the recurrence rate can be high as 13.26 % and Zoster mortality is presently elevated in country Severity effects with HIV/AIDS pandemic. The features of Zoster are more or less similar to the features of Pittaja Visarpa of Ayurveda. The initial Modern /Allopathic management is not satisfactory. As Visarpa is a skin disease having the features like and there is an indisposition characterization with rapidly spreading inflammation of skin. The main signs and symptoms of Visarpa include with a throbbing or prickly or stabbing pain, lassitude, horripilation, appearance of deep pink – colored and waxy patches on the skin with itching. The therapeutic regiments of Modern medicine are mostly immunosuppressive as well as having lots of adverse effects so considering those views a safe and effective Ayurvedic modalities have been introduce here. In present study orally Laxmivilash Rasa 500 mg, Gandhak Rasayan 500 mg, Sudarshan Ghana Vati 500 mg, and Brihat Haridra Khanda 3 grm have been given twice daily along with local application of Marichadi Taila. After 15 days of therapy satisfactory curative effect have been observed</p> Bodhisattwa Bakuli, P. B. Kar Mahapatra Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Single-Case-Study-on-the-Role-of-Some-Ayurvedic-Medicine-in-th Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Case Study of Chronic Kidney Disease https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Case-Study-of-Chronic-Kidney-Disease <p>Chronic Renal/Kidney Failure is another name for chronic kidney disease. Kidney illness is becoming more common in India as a result of changing lifestyles, dietary habits, hypertension, and uncontrolled diabetes. It is a silent assassin. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are the most common treatments for chronic kidney failure, followed by kidney transplantation. Kidney failure treatment is highly costly and out of reach for most Indians. Ayurveda has played an essential role in the early stages of renal failure in the hunt for this effective and safe treatment. A 35-year-old male patient with pitting edoema on his legs, eyes, and face, as well as dyspnea, frothy urine, anorexia, and constipation, is the subject of this case study. Chronic Kidney Disease has been diagnosed. Hemodialysis was recommended, but the patient refused, instead he had Ayurvedic treatment with Punarnava Mandur, Vrukkadoshantak Vati, Ark PunarnavaArk Makoe. Symptoms and investigation have improved. The purpose of this case study is to investigate Chronic Kidney Disease from an Ayurvedic perspective, as well as to examine the results of Ayurvedic therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease as a symptom and modern parameter investigation.</p> Vijay Vaishnav, Tarana Ameta, Purushottam Das Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Deepa Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Case-Study-of-Chronic-Kidney-Disease Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integrated Management of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy with Naturopathy, Yoga And Diet Control: A Case Report https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Integrated-Management-of-Diabetic-Peripheral-Neuropathy-with-Nat <p>Today, among metabolic disorders, diabetes can be considered the most common, increasing, serious, and costly public health problem in the World. Among them, microangiopathies leading to nephropathies, optic nerve damage associated with retinopathies, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) associated with pain, tingling, or numbness, loss of feeling in the hands, arms, feet, and legs can occur primarily due to uncontrolled diabetes levels. The main reason to visit in a primary care setting is chronic pain. Moreover, it is difficult to treat because of its severity, chronicity, and resistance to simple analgesics. Non-pharmacological approaches and nonconventional treatments such as naturopathy, yoga, and diet modification are used to relieve pain, improve well-being, and treat acute, chronic, and degenerative conditions of peripheral neuropathy associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.</p> Poonam Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Integrated-Management-of-Diabetic-Peripheral-Neuropathy-with-Nat Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ayurvedic Management of Facial Paralysis - A Single Case Study https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Facial-Paralysis-A-Single-Case-Study <p>Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neuron facial palsy are similar to Ardita vata presenting with palsy on one side of the face. Sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve characteristics this condition. Bell's palsy is an idiopathic, immune-mediated condition that is thought to be triggered by an infection. In today's science, steroid medication is the preferred treatment for full facial palsy. A 66-year-old person was diagnosed with Ardita vata as a result of a nor bearing pain in left ear and was treated with Mahamasha taila Nasya and oral Ayurvedic medicines, as well as two Panchakarma sessions. The treatment lasted four months in total, but significant benefits were shown after just one month, indicating practically complete recovery without the use of any additional drugs. The patient had the identical ailment in the right side of his face 5 years ago, and he received complete relief after 2 years of allopathic treatment. This instance serves as proof of the efficacy of Ayurvedic treatment in the treatment of Ardita vata (Bell's palsy) and as a proposal for more research on a larger number of patients.</p> Monika Rathore, Gyan Prakash Sharma, Mahesh Kumar Sharma, Renu Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Facial-Paralysis-A-Single-Case-Study Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ayurvedic Management of Ardhavbhedaka (Migraine)- A Case Study https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Ardhavbhedaka-Migraine-A-Case-Study <p>Migraine is a frequent brain illness that can be debilitating. Chronic migraine (CM) is defined as 15 headache days per month, whereas episodic migraine (EM) is defined as 15 headache days per month. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 3000 migraine attacks occur daily for every million people. When the quality of life is seriously impacted by migraine, prophylactic medication treatment should be explored. Migraine can be clinically correlated with Ardhavbhedaka. In present case study the patient of Ardhavabhedaka was treated with Sarvang Abhyang, Swedan, Mustyadi Yapana Basti and Shaman Chikitsa. We selected the drugs for shaman Chikitsa Shudh Tankan Bhasm, Sphatika Bhasma, Lodhra Churna, Nagkesar Churmna, Lodhra Asaav ,Tab Vingrai, Syp MShankhpuspi and Smritisagar ras were used. There was a significant reduction in symptoms in the patient. The patient experienced complete relief from migraine symptoms after undergoing all of the aforementioned treatments. After 3 months, the patient was followed up on, and there had been no recurrence of symptoms or ill effects from the therapy.</p> Chandra Shekhar Singh, Uttara Kumar Chaturvedi Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ayurvedic-Management-of-Ardhavbhedaka-Migraine-A-Case-Study Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Conceptual Review of Timira with special reference to Presbyopia https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Conceptual-Review-of-Timira-with-special-reference-to-Presbyop <p>Shalakya Tantra is an Ayurvedic branch also known as 'Urdhvanga Chikitsa' since it focuses on the upper body. The eye is a highly specialised sense organ that primarily serves the function of vision. The most important of all the senses is vision. Almost 90% of knowledge is only perceived via the eyes. Humans rely on eyesight for the majority of their daily tasks. As a result, any impediment to this is a significant disadvantage. As long as one is living, Ayurveda recommends making every effort to protect one's eyes. Clinical symptoms associated to visual disturbances are commonly encountered in Drishtigata Rogas in Ayurveda. As a result, all cases of visual disturbance can be grouped together under the TimiraKacha-Linganasha complex. Doshas lodged in the first and second patala produce symptoms such as avyaktadarshan and difficulties seeing up close. These symptoms are quite similar to the cardinal signs of presbyopia, which is characterised by a physiological insufficiency of accommodation that leads to a progressive loss of near vision. It was noted by ancient acharyas as a result of growing age. Today's erroneous lifestyle is causing premature ageing consequences such as presbyopia, where Ayurveda science's wholesome and rejuvenate approach might help humanity. Hence, Ayurvedic science can be explored to find a better way to manage this ailment. Pathykaraaharvihar, various Rasayana Yoga, Chakshusya medicines, Netrakarma, Kriyakalpa, Panchkarma, and other preventive and therapeutic treatments are described in Ayurveda to treat Timir</p> Prabhakar Vardhan, Sanjeev Sharma, Shamsa Fiaz Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Conceptual-Review-of-Timira-with-special-reference-to-Presbyop Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Review Study on Ashta Ksheera their Nutritional and Therapeutic Values in Children https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Review-Study-on-Ashta-Ksheera-their-Nutritional-and-Therapeuti <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Milk is a natural food source for mammals. Animals, including human, produce milk to feed their young until they are ready for solid food. Ayurveda identified eight different sources of animal milk under the name of Ashta Ksheera, of which human milk (Nari Dugdha) is also one; the other seven sources of milk are Avika (Sheep), Aja (Goat), Go (Cow), Mahishi (Buffallo), Ustra (Camel), Hasthini (Elephant), and Ashwi (Mare) milk.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To review nutritional value of Ashta Ksheera in comparison to human milk supported with evidence-based research studies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Literature research of Ayurveda text and relevant studies depicting nutritional value and therapeutic value of Ashta Ksheera were searched, comprised an electronic database of Google scholar, PubMed, Ayush research portal and DHARA database.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data from previous studies on Ashta Ksheera were extracted and compared its nutritional values with human milk (Nari Dugdha) and their properties described in Ayurveda.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Goat milk or sheep milk can be given to children allergic to cow milk. Cow milk acts as Rasayana (rejuvinating), Oja Vardhak (increasing immunity), it is best among the Jivaniya Padarthas (food enhancing life). Aja Dugha (Goat milk) is similar to Go dugdha (Cow milk) and can be use in Rajayakshma (emaciation like condition).</p> Vijay Kumar Pathak, Pankaj Sharma, Arun Kumar Mahapatra, Prashant Kumar Gupta, Rajagopala S Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Review-Study-on-Ashta-Ksheera-their-Nutritional-and-Therapeuti Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Adulteration and Substitution in Indian Medicinal Plants: A Review Article https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Adulteration-and-Substitution-in-Indian-Medicinal-Plants-A-Revie <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ayurveda is a system of traditional alternative medicine in India. In 20th and 21st century, due to side effects of synthetic drugs, there is an increasing interest in Ayurveda proprietary medicines. At present, the adulteration and Substitution of the herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry. The deforestation and extinction of many species and incorrect identification of many plants has resulted in adulteration and substitution of raw drugs. The future depended upon reliable methodologies for correct identification, standardization and quality assurance of Ayurvedic drugs. This article throws light on the concepts of substitution given by our preceptors and analyzes these with the present-day prevailing trend of adulteration and substitution, thereby aiming at systematic strategy to correctly identify the drugs.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Classical and modern literature along with various Research articles were gone through to collect minute details.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> There are different types of Adulterants viz. substandard, inferior, artificial or exhausted drugs. There are many reasons of Adulteration viz. confusion in Vernacular Names, lack of knowledge about authenticsource, similarity in morphology, lack of authentic plant, similarity in color, careless collections, etc. There are various types of Substitution viz. using totally different drug, substitution of the species belonging to same family, using different parts of the plant, due to same in action.</p> <p><strong>Analysis and Discussion</strong>: With the help of this thorough review, it is clear that with few basic identification points, one can easily differentiate between adulterated and original drug. Hence, the dealers and handlers of drugs should be made aware of these through training programmes.</p> Bhawani Singh Rathore, Mita Kotecha, Krutika Chaudhary, Manjula Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Adulteration-and-Substitution-in-Indian-Medicinal-Plants-A-Revie Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Asava Arista: an Medicated Alcohol Critical Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Asava-Arista-an-Medicated-Alcohol-Critical-Review <p>Ayurveda since ancient time’s renowned system of medicine in India. But it has got such an efficacy to cure the wide ranges of diseases. Asava arishta has evolved over time to include a variety of formulations that are prescribed for a variety of diseases. The pharmacological processing of asava and arishta reported in ayurvedic literature is rigorously examined in this paper. Inspection of the constituents required for preparation, including their composition, dravadravya (liquid), sandhaneeya dravya (fermenting materials), prakshepaka dravya (additives), madhura dravya (sweetening agents), sandhana paatra (fermentation vessels) used, samskaras prior to sandhana, method of preparation, sandhana Asava and arista are considered as exclusive formulation as per shelf life is concerned. These preparations are mainly used in case of Agni mandyata. These use of asava arista have led craze among the consumers due to its quicker absorption, long shelf life.</p> Gurav Prajwal, Badiger Mahadev, Patil Shreekant, Vasan Satish Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Asava-Arista-an-Medicated-Alcohol-Critical-Review Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bheshajakaala and its Clinical Importance–A Review on the Physiological Basis https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Bheshajakaala-and-its-Clinical-Importance-A-Review-on-the-Physio <p>The concept of time of administration of drugs (Bheshajakaala) is an important area in Ayurveda to be focused on. Even though the different types and indications of the different bheshajakaala are mentioned in classics how far they are executed in management of diseases by proper analysis is to be thought of. For the proper execution of these principles, there should be clarity and proper understanding of the concepts. The Ayurveda classics have given the details regarding drug administration viz. types, description of each type, conditions in which they are to be applied etc. but there is no direct reference regarding the exact reason for choosing these particular time period in particular condition. Here, an attempt is made to explain the logic of indicating each bheshajakaala in different conditions for the better understanding of the concept. The descriptions integrating modern physiological principles could prove pivotal in explaining the rationale for bheshajakaala and thereby facilitating their judicious use in clinical practice.</p> B.G. Resmi, Yadav Ram Chhaju, M. Abhilash Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Bheshajakaala-and-its-Clinical-Importance-A-Review-on-the-Physio Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Spectrum of Udavartta in the Limelight of Vega and Vegarodha–A Narrative Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Clinical-Spectrum-of-Udavartta-in-the-Limelight-of-Vega-and-Vega <p>Udavartta is a vatikaroga, predominantly produced by vegarodha, the incidence of which is increasing as a part of the fast and sedentary lifestyle. The primary site of udavartta is Koshta because of a multifactorial convergence of doshakopa towards the highly susceptible apanavata. Understanding the physiology of vegas help a lot to have an insight over the pathology in udavartta. Vegas, which can be categorized as either programmed or as a result of some irritation / deficit, are sophisticated functions of ‘vata system’ of the body to maintain the homeostasis. Vegarodha brings about a disturbance in this homeostasis, which is progressed to the disease udavartta. There are various conditions, which contradict as well as coincide with the pathology of udavartta. These conditions have to be either ruled out or confirmed to be present, before we diagnose or start to treat udavartta. As udavartta is a multidimensional and multifactorial disease, the management of udavartta also demands this kind of depth and variety. Vatanulomana, being the primary objective, the treatment of udavartta differs to a great extent, according to its type and severity. The treatment of udavartta is significant right from its chayavastha and is being expanded to a ‘broad spectrum udavartta therapy’ as it reaches the bhedavastha. Beyond Ayurveda, the omnipotent vata can be controlled and synchronized using pranayama and other Yogic techniques. Thus, the concepts and treatment modalities of Ayurveda; when complemented with a Yogic base and updated to the needs of modern society, can render better results.</p> Abhilash M Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Clinical-Spectrum-of-Udavartta-in-the-Limelight-of-Vega-and-Vega Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Concept of Rajyashma and its Treatment Approach in Ayurvedic Science -A Critical Analysis https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Concept-of-Rajyashma-and-its-Treatment-Approach-in-Ayurvedic-Sci <p>Rajayakshma refers to a group of disorders caused by the vitiation of the tridhatu and sapta dhatus.Ekadasha Rupa manifests as a result of indulging in Sahas veg sandarana, kshaya, and vishamashana. Rajayakshma is known as the "King of Diseases." As a result, it is known as Raja (King) and Yakshma (decay), which refers to massive fraying conditions. Parshwashool, Jwar, Kasa, and Raktashthiwana are Rajayakshma symptoms. In today's world, Rajayakshma is associated with tuberculosis. There is a differentiation between Rajayakshmaand Pulmonary Tuberculosis in terms of pathophysiology.Both have a very similar clinical presentation. Due to environmental changes, changes in behavior, diet habits, low quality of life, population boom, undernutrition, and a lack of understanding about the causes of disease and modern lifestyle, it is a major public health problem in India.The present review highlights the Ayurvedic aspect of Rajyasmaand its treatment through Ayurveda.</p> Sanjay Dhakar, Surendra Kumar Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Concept-of-Rajyashma-and-its-Treatment-Approach-in-Ayurvedic-Sci Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Concept of Switra in Ayurveda- A Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Concept-of-Switra-in-Ayurveda-A-Review <p>In the treatise of Ayurveda, Switra is presented as a cutaneous pigmentation disorder, clinically characterized by white spots over the skin. In Ayurveda, though Switra is mentioned along with other types of Kustha, the difference between Switra and Kustha is based on the non-secretary and non-infectious nature of Switra. Switra is caused due to vitiation of Tridosa and Dhatussuch as Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa and Medas. Switra can be correlated with Vitiligo. Vitiligo is described in modern medicine as an autoimmune disease which manifests as a white spot on the skin. Vitiligo is the most common pigmentation disorder affecting 1%-2% of the population worldwide. About 80% of Vitiligo risk is attributable to genetic factors, and the rest 20% is attributable to the environment. It is occurring in both children and adults and is considered the most common pigmentation skin disorder in the world. Vitiligo is considered a cosmetic problem, although its effects can be psychologically devastating, often with a considerable burden on daily life.</p> Srabani Das Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Concept-of-Switra-in-Ayurveda-A-Review Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Psoralea Corylifolia: A Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ethnopharmacological-Phytochemistry-and-Pharmacological-Activiti <p>The Indian medicinal plant Psoralea corylifolia has been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of treatment for thousands of years. In classical Ayurvedic sources, it is referred to as 'Bakuchi'. It is also referred as Kustanaghini ,Kustanashini due to its potent effect in skin disorders. It's an erect annual herbaceous plant of the Fabaceae family, native to China &amp; South Africa, also it grows all across the Indian subcontinent (Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Bihar, and Deccan). Bakuchi root are used for dental carries; its leaves for diarrhea; and fruits for anemia, asthma, bronchitis, dysuria, improving hair and complexion, inflammation, piles, and vomiting, Its seeds are used for the treatment of scabies, ulcers, vitiligo, leukoderma, eczema, leprosy, and psoriasis. Phytochemical investigation indicates the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, quinones, phenols, benzofurans and benzopyrans, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenes, and steroids. Anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hemostatic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-obesity, anti-viral, anti-mutagenic, anti-filarial, estrogenic, anti-cancer, anti-asthma, antidiabetic, anti-aging and immune-modulatory effects have been found for various parts of the plant. It is also effective in Alzehimer’s disease and alopecia areata. Various formulations are present in market such as babchi churna, psoralea ointment, babchi oil, bakuchi capsule, bakuchi vati, somaraji taila &amp; avalgujadi lepa. So, an attempt has been made in this article to gathered all the possible significant information about the Bakuchi</p> Saurabh Singh, Aaditi Agrawal Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Ethnopharmacological-Phytochemistry-and-Pharmacological-Activiti Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Longevity Through Panchakarma in Healthy Life https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Longevity-Through-Panchakarma-in-Healthy-Life <p>In age of competition and industrialization risk of lifestyle disorders is increased. Lifestyle disorders are causing a greater number of mortality and morbidity. Lifestyle disorders is not only limited to adult but also it is found in young age. In previous few studies result shows that over 61 per cent of all deaths in India attributed to lifestyle or non-communicable diseases. They are spread in both urban and rural areas. This disease is burden over society as well as allopathy medicine, because they only control the disease not totally cure. On other side principle of ayurveda first deals with preventive care of healthy individuals and curative care of diseased individuals. Ayurveda is worked at four levels first is Nidanparivarjana (avoid causative factors), Sanshodhana (detoxification), Samshamana (palliative medicine) and Pathyapathya (specific diet according to disease). In this Sanshodhana is mainly concerned with Panchakarma. Panchakarma is use as preventive as well as curative purpose. Panchakarma includes Vamana (therapeutic emesis), Virechana (therapeutic purgation), Niruha Basti (therapeutic decoction enema), Anuvasan Basti (therapeutic unctuous enema) and Nasya (medication through nasal route). Various Samhita describe Dinacharya (daily regimen) and Rutucharya (seasonal regimens) in which Acharya explained about daily and seasonal Panchakarma procedure for healthy life. So, this article aims to review the role of different type Panchakarma in order to explore the scientific approach for welfare of human beings.</p> Gopesh Mangal, Prasad Nanarkar, Gunjan Garg Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Longevity-Through-Panchakarma-in-Healthy-Life Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Matra Basti- Mode of Action-A Conceptual Study https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Matra-Basti-Mode-of-Action-A-Conceptual-Study <p>The five-bio cleansing/detoxifying procedures (Panchakarma procedures/ Samshodhan Chikitsa) advocated in Ayurveda are Vaman (Therapeutic emesis), Virechan (Therapeutic Purgation), Basti (Medicated Enema), Nasya (Infiltration of medications through nostrils), and Raktamokshana (Bloodletting by different methods). The therapeutic oil or herbal decoction is administered through the anal route in Basti Karma. Ayurveda considers Basti Chikitsa to be one of the most important Panchakarma treatments. It contains both therapeutic and preventative as well as promotional properties. This Basti therapy also helps to relieve tension in the body and mind, hence improving one's quality of life. The rectum is used to administer herbal decoctions and therapeutic oils to the colon. It is not a localised or symptomatic treatment, despite the fact that it directly affects the colon. Vatahara, Shulahara, Shothahara, Srotoshodhaka, Yogavahi, Agnideepaka, and Rasayana are some of the roles that Basti Dravyas can play. Matra Basti is an oil/unctuous substance-free therapy. Abhyanga (therapeutic oil massage) and Swedana are performed before to it (sudation). Human is the king of the castle (body) so he has to make the decisions how to convert it into more beautiful and healthy state along with its prevention from the rust of impurities. The current article summarises the ayurvedic perspective on Matra basti and its mode of action.</p> Anil Patidar, Gopesh Mangal, Siddharth Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Matra-Basti-Mode-of-Action-A-Conceptual-Study Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Microscopic Evaluation of Leaf of Balanites Aegyptiaca (L.) Delile: A Review Article https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Microscopic-Evaluation-of-Leaf-of-Balanites-Aegyptiaca-L-Delile- <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Leaves of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile are commonly used for diabetes. Literature survey revealed that not much work has been done on this plant, especially on leaves. So detailed microscopical study was done for its identification.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Transverse section and powder microscopy was carried out on leaves of Balanitesaegyptiaca (L.) Delile.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Microscopical study showed dorsiventaral midrib and smooth, even and thick lamina. The lamina was isolateral and 350 µm thick. The marginal part of the lamina was bluntly conical measuring 200 µm thick. Calcium oxalate crystals were abundant in the mesophyll tissue. The crystals were druses and rosette types. The veins formed well defined vein-islets of polygonal outline. The vein terminations were well developed and thick, short and straight. At the end of the vein termination occurred a cluster of squarish, thick walled wide sclereids. The leaf was amphistomatic, However, the stomata on the abaxial side were more in frequency than on the adaxial side. The abaxial epidermal cells were small, polygonal and fairly thick walled. The anticlinal walls were straight. The trichomes were unicellular, unbranched and thick walled. Crystal bodies were wide spread in the powder. The crystals were exclusively druses, which were spherical bodies comprising many pointed triangular small crystal units.</p> <p><strong>Analysis and Discussion:</strong> The present research provided useful information in regard to its correct identity, evaluation and helped to differentiate from the closely related other species of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Hence, it furnished the data for future standardization of the drug.</p> Bhawani Singh Rathore, Mita Kotecha, Krutika Chaudhary, Manjula Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Microscopic-Evaluation-of-Leaf-of-Balanites-Aegyptiaca-L-Delile- Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review Article: Concept of Srotorodha (Blockage of Channels) in Relation to Aam https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Review-Article-Concept-of-Srotorodha-Blockage-of-Channels-in-Rel <p>One of the main reasons of disease is an aggravated dosha. These intensified doshas become lodged in channels, resulting in abnormalities or channel obstruction, which leads to a variety of illnesses. Blockage of channels is another key cause of disease, in addition to improper digestive fire and suppression of desire. The tissue elements or constituents undergoing change are transported to their destination via circulatory pathways. The term "channel" refers to the system of circulation. Contaminated diet and regimen are the cause of body and mind channel obstruction. The function and quality of the dependent tissues are disrupted or reduced when the channel is blocked. Increased flow of contents, obstruction, and the formation of nodules in the channels, as well as flow diversion, are all signs of abnormal channels. Blockage of channels might involve obstruction and the appearance of nodules in the channels. Metabolism is a continual process that occurs in our bodies. The natural activity of the body produces free radicals during such metabolic changes, which are damaging to our bodies in the long run. They are the ones who make us old and start the ageing process, in which the body's physical and mental functions deteriorate. It is related to Aam in Ayurvedic terminology, which is the result of incorrect digestion and this aam has the potential to block channels and disrupt their operation.</p> Neha Sajwan, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Dinesh Chandra Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Review-Article-Concept-of-Srotorodha-Blockage-of-Channels-in-Rel Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review Article on Sarvang Abhyang and Swedan https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Review-Article-on-Sarvang-Abhyang-and-Swedan <p>Ayurveda literally translates to "life science." According to Ayurveda, health does not just refer to the absence of sickness; it also refers to a person's intellect, sense organs, and spirit being in a perfect state of harmony to bestow happiness while the body is free of disease. Abhyanga is an Ayurvedic therapy that entails massaging the entire body with a Dosha-specific warm herb-infused oil from head to toe. For specific illnesses, the oil is frequently pre-mixed with herbs. Swedana is a popular technique in Ayurvedic Panchakarma centres. Sarvanga Swedana, or passive body heat therapy, is known to generate systemic hemodynamic alterations. Swedana is typically performed after Abhyanga and/or Snehana (the administration of therapeutic oils and ghee in metered quantities for oral consumption as a pretreatment technique for cleansing therapies such as Vamana – Therapeutic vomiting and Virechana – Therapeutic purgation). Swedana causes the body to sweat, making us feel lighter and more energised. It also causes the cells to activate and wash out pollutants. We feel lighter and more at peace when our cellular metabolism improves. The paper explains the concepts of Sarvang Abhyang and Swedan in broad terms.</p> Siddharth Sharma, Surendra Vedpathak, Vipin kumar, Anil Patidar Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Review-Article-on-Sarvang-Abhyang-and-Swedan Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role Of Ayurveda in Prevention of Communicable Diseases https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-Of-Ayurveda-in-Prevention-of-Communicable-Diseases <p>Infectious or communicable diseases can be defined as an illness caused by another living agent, or its products, that can spread from one person to another, can cause emergency situation. Ayurveda has given practical explanation about the communicable diseases in various contexts which are applicable in day-to-day life in their prevention, and cure. The modes of transmission of the Communicable diseases, relative modes of prevention, and maintenance of health with Dinacharya &amp; Ritucharya (daily practice &amp; Seasonal practice) are well illustrated in classics. Various modes of transmission of the communicable diseases by Touch, Inhalation, Sharing Fomites, Polluted water, Air, Soil have been explained in Ayurveda along with the symptoms seen normally which follow cough, dyspnea, vomiting, rhinorrhoea, headache, fever etc. Infectious agents are plentiful, mutate rapidly, and can become resistant to drugs if not destroyed completely. Low vaccination rates, poor nutrition, age (young and elderly), and immunosuppression, Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, Polluted drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. The first and foremost aim of Ayurveda is Prevention of diseases and next is the cure of manifested diseases for which avoidance of the causative factors is the first line of management. There are minor diversions in the management of such infective conditions in Ayurveda such as Sadvritta (good conduct), Rasayana etc which can be effective method of prevention of communicable diseases.</p> Pratima Paudel, Shamsa Fiaz, Malashree S.G Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-Of-Ayurveda-in-Prevention-of-Communicable-Diseases Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Kleda Dushya in Prameha (Diabetes Mellitus)-A Critical Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Kleda-Dushya-in-Prameha-Diabetes-Mellitus-A-Critical-Rev <p>According to the World Health Organization, diabetes mellitus will be the seventh largest cause of death by 2030. According to studies undertaken by the Indian Council of Medical Research, India currently has 62.4 million persons with diabetes. Diabetes patients experience several consequences throughout time. As a result, they are vulnerable to a wide range of infections. Modern medical research is attempting to solve the problem, but it has its own limitations. According to modern medicine, the treatment's goal is to achieve a protracted remission rather than a complete cure. According to Acharya Charaka, the vitiation of three Doshas creates 20 different varieties of Prameha as well as a slew of other ailments. Nidan, Dosha, and Dushya are three components that, when united in a strong state, cause Prameha to develop right away. The patient in Madhumeha passes a big amount of urine that looks like Madhu (honey) and tastes like Kashaya (astringent) and Madhur (sweet). In place of Madhumeha, Acharya Sushruta has told Kshaudrameha. An individual suffering from prameha's like is also increased by hereditary propensity. The unnecessary Abaddha meda (loose lipid), Mamsa (muscle proteins), Kleda (body fluids), Shukra (reproductive tissues), Shonit (blood), vasa (muscle fats), Majja (bone marrow), Rasa (body liquid with plasma), Oja (immunity and immune system of body) are significant components engaged with the pathogenesis of prameha. The present review highlights the role of Kleda dushya in the pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus.</p> Parveen Sharma, Sumit, Ajay Kumar Sahu, Harish Bakuni, Bharat Kumar Padhar, Sunita Rawat Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Kleda-Dushya-in-Prameha-Diabetes-Mellitus-A-Critical-Rev Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Samvardhana Ghrit in the Management of Childhood Disability Disorders: A Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Samvardhana-Ghrit-in-the-Management-of-Childhood-Disabil <p>Today development disabilities are emerging as a new problem of society. While disability is discussed particularly in children, about a quarter of chronic childhood problems are neurological in origin. Disability treatment and management in the world is a big challenge. The Ayurveda medicine (like Vatashamaka drug and Medhya drug) and along with Panchkarma procedures will help at possible level for the rehabilitation towards lives with potential of independence. Samvardhana Ghrit is mentioned in the Lehadhyaya chapter of the Kashyapa Samhita. It is used to promote healthy growth of child without interference from disease, as well as to improve or treat impaired conditions in children who are Pangu (lame), Muka (dumb), Ashruti (deaf), and Jada (idiot).</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the efficacy of Samvardhana ghrit in the management of childhood disability disorders.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A literature review was conducted with the help of many important Ayurvedic and Modern textbooks, and article published in various journals.</p> <p><strong>Result and discussion:</strong> Present review reveals that the ingredients of Samvardhana Ghrit have action on the brain and nervous system. Further, as the formulation is in ghrit form, it can easily cross the blood brain barrier and show its effect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Samvardhana Ghrit can be used for the management of childhood disability disorder. However, additional panchakarma and physiotherapy may provide additional benefit to the patients.</p> M.N.S Marasingha, Nisha Kumari Ojha Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Samvardhana-Ghrit-in-the-Management-of-Childhood-Disabil Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Swarnaprashan in Children: A Systematic Review https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Swarnaprashan-in-Children-A-Systematic-Review <p><strong>Background:</strong> Swarnaprashan is a herbo-mineral Ayurveda preparation recommended in pediatric age group to enhance immunity and intellect since antiquity. Numbers of advocates are available for the practice of Swarnaprashan and its utility.</p> <p><strong>Aim &amp; Objective:</strong> The current review is aimed to assess the role of Swarnaprashan in children which could potentially have multifaceted benefits.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> A systematic review was conducted following PRISM ScR guidelines. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) analyzing the role of Swarnaprashan in children and published articles between 2001 to 2022 year were included in this study. Electronic databases were screened viz. PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus. The following keywords were used: “Swarnabinduprashan, Suvarnabinduprashan, Suvarnaprashan, and Swarnaprashana. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Present systematic review reveals the beneficial health effects of Swarnaprashan: a) Immunomodulatory effect b) Effect on ITQOL c) Effect on hematological biochemical parameters/ Assessment of safety d) Effect on cognition e) Effect on growth, development and behavior.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Present systematic review proves the role of Swarnaprashana in enhancing the cognition, physical growth, development as well as protection against the diseases by enhancing the immunity. There for Swarnaprashan could serve as drug of multimodal action at various levels which could lead complete development of a child.</p> Sahadat Khan, Nisha Kumari Ojha Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Role-of-Swarnaprashan-in-Children-A-Systematic-Review Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Scope and Utility of Ayurveda in Rural and Primary Health Care https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Scope-and-Utility-of-Ayurveda-in-Rural-and-Primary-Health-Care <p>The population of India is 1.38 billion, of which 65.07% live in rural areas. Health care injustice is a universal phenomenon in rural India and the condition of rural and primary health care in India remains unsatisfactory even after 75 years of independence. Modern health facilities are very poor in rural areas and about 65% of the population lives in rural areas, using Ayurveda and medicinal plants as their primary health care needs. The holistic approach of Ayurveda can provide most of the health services in rural India from its own resources such as preventive and promotive health care. Non-pharmacological remedies of Ayurveda like Sadvritta and Swasthyavritta, Achara Rasayana and Yoga and the use of kitchen spices and common medicinal plants available in rural areas are better alternatives to primary health care in rural areas</p> Ashwini Kumar Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Scope-and-Utility-of-Ayurveda-in-Rural-and-Primary-Health-Care Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Suvarnaprashana - Concept or Factual Practice of Ayurveda https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Suvarnaprashana-Concept-or-Factual-Practice-of-Ayurveda <p>In antiquity, gold was perceived as an important medication with various favorable health effects. In an important book of Tao entitled Bauputz, the author, Hung Kir (283–363 ad) stated: “ingest gold to live a gold-like longevity”. These days, gold leaf, flake, or dust can be found adorning or being added to a variety of dishes and drinks. However, its sole function is that of a decorative accent. Gold, in all of its various medicinal forms, is considered to be the most potent component of many distinct herbo-mineral combinations in Ayurveda medicine. In pediatric populations, the usage of gold is recommended right from birth, in conjunction with honey and ghee; this process is known as Jatakarma in Ayurveda, while in the neonate and above age group, to promote health, strength, longevity, etc., Lehana is advised. Suvarnprashan is the name given to the practice of ingesting Suvarn Bhasma together with a mixture of Rasyana and Balya medicines on a regular basis for an extended period of time. Regular use of Suvarnprashan fosters the child's overall growth. In addition to preventing infections, illnesses, and allergic reactions, it has a good influence on the child's immune system. Suvarnprashan may accelerate the development of the brain, the central nervous system, and the generation of high-quality neurons, so that the future cognitive abilities of the child will be exceptional.</p> Rakesh Kumar Nagar, Nisha Ojha Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/Suvarnaprashana-Concept-or-Factual-Practice-of-Ayurveda Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Clinical Study of Karanja Churna and Karanja Tail Yoni Pichu in the Management of Shwetapradar w.s.r. to Leucorrhoea. https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Comparative-Clinical-Study-of-Karanja-Churna-and-Karanja-Tail- <p><strong>Background And Aims-</strong> Shwetapradar (Leucorrhoea) is one of the most common of all gynecological complaints. In our text Shwetapradar is described directly or indirectly in many Yonirogas as a symptom. In the present study we have used two types of trial drugs namely Karanja Churna for oral route and Karanja Tail for local application as Yoni Pichu with the aim to validate the directives of classics on parameters of a systematic and scientific research work.</p> <p><strong>Material And Method-</strong> The method adopted in present study is Randomized, clinical, open study. This study was done on randomly selected 45 patients which were divided in three groups of 15 patients in each group. All the patients results were assessed subjectively and objectively and statistical evaluation of results were done with ‘paired Wilcoxon signed rank test’ and ‘ unpaired ONE WAY ANOVA test’. <strong>Results-</strong> The results were assessed in the form of relief from the symptoms. The results showed that overall relief in group C patients were the highest which was (66.19%) followed by group B (61.38%) and group A (45.96%)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion-</strong> This can be made out from the study that if both Karanja Churna &amp; Karanja Tail Yoni Pichu are given simultaneously are more effective than Karanja Churna orally alone and Karanja Tail Yoni Pichu vaginally alone.</p> Meenakshi nagar, C.M. Jain, Sushila Sharma, Hetal H. Dave Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Comparative-Clinical-Study-of-Karanja-Churna-and-Karanja-Tail- Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Knowledge Regarding Self-Care in Patient of Janu-Sandhigata Vata w.s.r to Osteoarthrosis- Primary Care Base Structured Teaching Program https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Study-to-Evaluate-the-Effectiveness-of-Knowledge-Regarding-Sel <p><strong>Background –</strong>Knowledge about any disease is the best way of prevention of any disease. Janu sandhigta vata is the disease that occurs in old age. If we have knowledge about Janu Sandhigata vata before ongoing through the disease we have prevent this disease. So a study to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge of self care activities in patients of Janu Sandhigata vata on out patients of National institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur.</p> <p><strong>Objectives <em>–</em></strong> 1. To develop and administer structured teaching program and access the knowledge of selfcare in knee Osteoarthrosis.2. To evaluate the effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program regarding selfcare among janusandhigata vata w.s.r. to Osteoarthrosis patients by comparing pre and post test knowledge score</p> <p><strong>Method –</strong> Sample size is 150 of Janu Sandhigata Vata who visit the OPD of NIA, Jaipur with random sampling technique. Tool comprised of knowledge questionnaire and 3point rating i.e., inadequate, moderate, adequate knowledge.</p> <p><strong>Results-</strong> In pre test adequate knowledge is 0% moderate knowledge is 34% and adequate knowledge is 66% and on post testing adequate knowledge is 94% and moderate knowledge is 6% while inadequate knowledge is 0%. The mean value of pre score is 9.973 and post score is 22.159 with mean difference is 12. 186.In paired t-test, p value is &lt; 0.0001 suggest Extremely significant for Structured teaching programme for Janusandhigata Vata.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: -</strong> As Janu-sandhigata Vata is a Krichasadhya vyadhi, so the better option is to prevent the disease by selfcare management, Structured Teaching Program is a better approach towards the understanding of the disease and its management. Above results findings suggest that the after STP program knowledge of patient is significantly increases. Hence it suggests that, STP program is useful in increasing the knowledge of patient regarding disease</p> Ravi Kumar, Reetu Sharma, B.K. Sevatker Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Study-to-Evaluate-the-Effectiveness-of-Knowledge-Regarding-Sel Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Demographic Status of Ksheena Shukra (Oligozoospermia) in Male Patients. https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Study-on-Demographic-Status-of-Ksheena-Shukra-Oligozoospermia- <p>Oligozoospermia contributes as the major factor of male infertility. Day by day drastic changes in activities like life style, sexual life, food habits, industrial and occupational hazards, environmental pollution have contributed to the increased incidence of Oligozoospermia. According to Ayurvedic classics, Oligozoospermia can be correlated with Ksheena Shukra. It was reported that 40 % of infertility cases related to men, 40 % related to women and 20 % related to both of sex. A male factor is present in the one half of infertile couples. The study was conducted on 60 diagnosed &amp; confirmed patients of Oligozoospermia from OPD &amp; IPD of NIA, Hospital, Jaipur. Maximum 56.67 % patients belonged to the age group of 21-35 years, 88.33 % patients were Hindu. 80 % of patients were married. 100 % of the patients had masturbation habit. 76.67% of the patients had masturbation habit before marriage. Maximum 40 % of the patient were having psychological factor like stress. 65 % of the patients reported to have moderate oligozoospermia i.e 6- 10 million/ml. 85 % of the patients had primary infertility and 85 % of the patients had Shrama Maithuna (Exertion during intercourse).</p> Devesh Jaiman Copyright (c) 2022 https://irjay.com/index.php/irjay/article/view/A-Study-on-Demographic-Status-of-Ksheena-Shukra-Oligozoospermia- Tue, 31 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000